Sunday, 21 August 2016

Confirmed: NO Chinese Privilege in Singapore (Part 2)

Read Part 1: “No Chinese Privilege in Singapore” found here.
Over the past 2 years after the Post, the concept of “Chinese Privilege” has found its way into mainstream public discussion Forums on race relations.  Also, one website even dedicated itself on the subject and has been making money from Subscribers who actually paid to rant and share alleged personal stories of racial discrimination as evidence of “Chinese Privilege”. 


The most damning conclusive and condemnatory evidence against the advocates and proponents of majority “Chinese Privilege” was published this week by a Channel NewsAsia-Institute of Policy Studies (CNA-IPS) survey on race relations.  

The Key Findings are:

[1] 73% Singaporeans does not believe that a person’s race is “very important” in influencing his or her success;

[2] 89% Singaporeans agreed that a person who works hard has an equal opportunity to become rich, irrespective of his/her race’

[3] 90% Singaporeans stated that they liked talking to people of all races and lived in peace with everyone;

[4] 90% Singaporeans endorsed elements of “multiculturalism” such as according respect, equality and value of other races;

[5] Nearly 70% Chinese Singaporeans were amenable to social interaction across racial boundaries.  They were open to inviting Indians and Malays to their house for meals, and allowing them to play with their children and grandchildren.

One of the Report’s conclusions is that the Survey found “a strong endorsement that success in Singapore is meritocratic”.

The CNA-IPS is one of the largest surveys on race relations in Singapore by polling 2,000 Singapore citizens and permanent residents aged 21 and above.

Meritocracy is the Bridge to a racially and socially just and equal Singapore irrespective of ethnicity, language and cultural heritage.

About 51 years ago, Singapore’s Founding Fathers in their far-sighted wisdom had instituted “Meritocracy” as the core operating principle governing access to all the key routes and mechanism of social mobility.  The overall achievements of minority groups vis-à-vis the majority Chinese clearly attest to the success of this enduring leadership initiative.  The CNA-IPS Survey confirms this FACT.  

The CNA-IPS Survey disappoints the advocates and proponents of Chinese “Majority Privilege” who have simply based their construction of non-existent “Chinese Privileges” by virtue of the Chinese’s 75% numerical majority in the population, along with 17% Malays, 7% Indians and less than 5% Eurasian and other ethnic groups.

Truth in Singapore is, Chinese “Majority” advantage did not translate and be reinforced and institutionalized to the extent as to obstruct, discriminate and prevent minority Malay, Indian and Eurasian and other ethnic groups from enjoying EQUAL access to the MEANS of social mobility eg education, medical, housing, religious practice, security, law, order, justice and public amenities like MRT, bus, cars …etc.

Irrespective to whatever extent anyone wishes to construct whichever surreal “Chinese Privilege”, whether perceived real by the occasional experience or conceived mostly in their imagination, it is clear that such “Chinese Privilege” has failed to become entrenched in Singapore society to any material or significant degree.    


According to credible Social Science research literature on the subject, for the concept of “Chinese Privilege” to have any operational validity, the following must be true:

[1] “Chinese Privileges” exist ONLY for BEING CHINESE, and are AUTOMATIC and NATURAL Benefits for the Chinese;

[2] REAL and SPECIAL Chinese ADVANTAGES are packaged as “RIGHTS, ENTITLEMENTs and IMMUNITIES” granted to or enjoyed by the Chinese BEYOND the COMMON ADVANTAGES of all other Races;

[3] Chinese Singaporeans enjoy SPECIAL RIGHT or IMMUNITY Attached To Them in ALL Social Relations;

[4] FACT-BASED Evidence of ANY Social Expressions of “Privilege” by Chinese Singaporeans expecting to be exceptionally deferred or regarded other than being EQUALLY treated as their fellow Malays, Indians, Eurasians and Malays Singaporeans.

It is clear that Singapore does not satisfy ANY of the above conditions for the de facto existence of “Chinese Privilege”.

Their existence would in fact have critically prevented the effective and successful operation of Meritocracy as the mediating medium of a just and equal multiracial multicultural society.  The CNA-IPS Survey indirectly dismiss any existential ”Chinese Privilege”.


The lesson from Apartheid South Africa or pre-Independence Rhodesia is that the mere numerical majority of a race does not automatically confer “Privilege”. To move from "majority" to "privileged", the majority race should be granted special benefits, advantages and immunities to the exclusion and disadvantages of the minority races by virtue of solely the "racial" criteria.  Like in Malaysia.

Interestingly, if one were to substitute the term “Chinese Privilege” in the above 4 Conditions with “Malay Privilege” as in Malaysia” or “White Privilege” as in the United States (US), the contrast is stark and would demolish and dispel any notion of the existence of “Chinese Privilege” in Singapore.

The importation of the concept of “majority privilege” from the US context is simply bad scholarship and the wrongful application of an appropriate social science concept applicable ONLY in the US context.  Another of myPosts on this here:

The continual use of the false and fictional concept of “Chinese Privilege” in Singapore will not enrich honest ongoing conversations that would enhance racial harmony and cohesion in Singapore.


Racial harmony and integration in Singapore remains very much a work in progress. Much more is needed to increase and sustain our lead in our Race Against Racism before we dare to declare, without hesitation, “regardless of race, language or religion” in all that we think or do as one people and one nation.

As Singapore strives to continue our racial harmony and shared economic prosperity in the next 15 and 50 years, we need to take stock and ponder whether we have effectively forged a strong enough bond that can withstand any threat to our social communal canvas.  Do we have Racial Harmony or merely Peaceful Co-Existence?  Time will tell.

Sunday, 14 August 2016

Olympics 2016 - Schooling is "One of Us" and a "True Son of Singapore".

Singapore’s First Olympic Gold – Going Back to School with Schooling

Joseph Schooling, a teen Singaporean with multiple ethnic heritage personifying the best of the country’s multi-cultural demography, has captured singular glory and distinction for his country, who is incidentally celebrating our 51st Birthday, with the country’s First Olympic Gold Medal at the 100m Butterfly Swimming Event at the Rio Olympics. He has also bested his idol the 22-Olympic Gold Medalist Michael Phelps into 2nd place shared with 2 other competitors by over half a second.

Singapore’s first Olympic Medal was won in 1960 by Tan Howe Liang who won the Silver Medal in the Weighting (Lightweight Category) in Rome, Italy. To date, athletes from Singapore have won a total of 5 medals at the Olympics including Schooling’s Gold.  The other Silver and 2 Bronze Medals came from Table Tennis, respectively from the 2008 (Beijing) and 2012 (London) Olympics.  

Schooling’s Gold Olympic Medal and Howe Liang’s Silver Medal struck at Singaporean national pride in a much more radically fundamental way – both of them are home-grown original Singaporean athletes.  

The other Singapore Olympic Medalists - Li Jiawei, Feng Tianwei and Wang Yuegu – were formerly from China who adopted Singapore as their home country and thus became eligible to represent Singapore at the Olympics.  For the record, Singaporeans have happily welcomed them as fellow Singaporeans and proud that they ended our Olympic medal drought in 2008.    

Joseph Schooling is “One of Us” – a 3rd generation Eurasian Singaporean who is “a true son of Singapore” to quote his Father, Colin, in The Sunday Times.  Joseph studied in Singapore’s top Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) for 8 years before going to the United States to pursue his swimming passion and studies.

Schooling’s Olympic Gold Medal achievement will revive debates as to whether we as a nation have done enough to consciously groom and develop local athletes. The same debates will also debunk our narrow obsession with academic excellence as the ONLY definition of human talent deserving of social investments and cultivation.

Gold Olympian Schooling did not have the benefit of the massive investments, to the tune of several thousands of S$$, that went to the National Table Tennis players who have very, very few homegrown Singaporeans.  Singapore has paid beyond money, coaches and amenities to include our valuable and prestigious Citizenships in the desperate attempts by sports officials to ignore local talent development in favour of the easier method of buying ready foreign ping-pong talent to represent Singapore.        

In ACS, Schooling benefitted from his School’s objective “to nurture all-round development and help students achieve their potential outside the academic field”.  Another top elite school, RI, had 20 years ago decided to drop soccer from their list of games and co-curricular activities (CCA) because she had not been the soccer champion over the preceding years despite repeatedly producing the nation’s top students.  Wonder what happened to the lesson “Don’t Quit” in their development of youth for leadership! 

In ACS, the School Motto is “The Best is Yet to Be”.  In 2012, Schooling finished badly, actually last, in Heat 5 of the 200m Butterfly Swimming event after Olympic Officials objected unfairly to his cap and goggles. He returned dejected and disappointed, but determined to go at it again by focusing on the 100m.  His story is now Singapore’s history.  Would he have been so encouraged if he were in RI instead of ACS?    

As Singapore prepares herself to celebrate Schooling’s Olympian Gold Honour for Singapore, we should not forget the many Singaporean athletes who could have brought Singapore earlier to the Olympic Gold Medal if only they had been carefully nurtured, adequately funded and provided with the sports eco-system and infrastructure to grow into the stature of Olympian qualifiers, like we did for the National Table Tennis Team.

Athletic and all human talent development begin when young in schools. The wise adage “if you want life-guards, first develop swimmers” is so true. 

Singapore can certainly afford to buy all the 2016 Olympic Gold and Silver Medalists, offer them “special” Singapore “Dual”-Citizenships; and I am sure there would be even more Gold Medals and “Majullah Singapura” refrains in the 2020 Olympics when they represent Singapore in Tokyo. This approach would certainly be meaningless and the accolades short-lived, as they provide neither impetus nor emulation model for the younger generations of Singaporeans.  Again, we will be wasting our money and resources just to ensure the career promotion of certain sports officials. 

From a helicopter’s view, there are the broader related issues of talent development in Singapore. Talent excellence must and should embrace to include as many forms of talent as possible, given Singapore’s only true asset being our human resource.    

Many Singaporeans are receiving accolades as they excel beyond our shores as musicians, actors, entertainers, bankers, commodity traders, business men and women, inventors, researchers, entrepreneurs, logisticians, engineers, management consultants and University Professors.  And then some.  Yet, they are very seldom recognized nor cited for emulation locally simply because they do not belong to the “Scholar” Elites.  Many Scholars however, having gravitated easily along pre-planned career paths, could succeed only within the protected environment of the Civil Service. Very few senior Scholar-Civil Servants are actually sought after by headhunters for the private sector. 

True talent is visible to all, and the impact of real talent is to add value to benefit others, especially to encourage their fellow countrymen and women, as well as the coming generations not only by bringing honour and glory to Singapore, but to propel her to ever greater heights of authentic excellence and achievements in many talent domains.

The Schooling lesson to our educators, talent developers, sports officers and political leaders is to go back to School for a re-imagination of our talentscape and to re-calibrate the limitless talent possibilities of our children and their grandchildren, so as to have more Schoolings for Singapore.


Wednesday, 13 July 2016

The American Race Against Racism

US Race Relations Run Ahead towards her Past

Reflections on American Race Relations

The police shootings in the US cities of 2 black men in Louisiana and Minnesota in the recent past week are grim reminders of the consequences of losing the never-ending race against racism in the most developed and, arguably, most civilized modern human society. In a direct response, a black sniper-shooter killed 5 white police officers in another distant city of Dallas in Texas. 

America’s failures in her race relations are not amenable to easy or comprehensive understanding and analysis.  No pretension is attempt here to have the solutions to end racism in America.

Nothing in this Post is intended to condone the wanton Dallas massacre leading to the deaths of 5 police officers and the wounding of countless others, as well as the mayhem and widespread fear on the 7th July 2016. “All Lives Matter” and anything else are less than true and honest.  The “Black Lives Matter” (BLM) cry is inherently racist because it elevates the importance of the life of one group above others. 

In the weeks following Louisiana, Minnesota and Dallas, the US race against racism veered off its future destiny of true freedom and equality to run forward towards her bigoted Jim Crow past.

White American racism against Blacks in particular was thoroughly cooked and boiled in the living hells of her past institution of chattel slavery from 1619 to the 1865 Presidential Emancipation Proclamation that freed more than 3 million Black slaves, lasting about 246 years. Their freedom is followed by more than 150 years of systematic and continuous social discrimination and exclusion, as manifested lately by the Louisiana, Minnesota and Dallas killings.

To be fair, American race relations have in fact improved significantly since the 1960s. Many Black Americans indeed have moved up the social mobility ladder through education and achieve prosperous careers as entertainers, doctors, lawyers, accountants, businessmen, politicians, professioals … etc.  A Black President in the White House for 2 terms should have convinced Black Americans of the abundance in life and social opportunities awaiting them that they have access to. For many Black Americans, these are simply not enough.

Black Americans at 13% is the largest racial minority, compared with 77% of racial majority Whites Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans together amount to 17% of the population, making up the largest ethnic minority. Asian Americans at 5.6% are at a far distance, but more than the 1.2% Native Americans.

Many Black Americans believe that they are singled out for systematic discrimination by social institutions and by the law-and–order systems. Their proportion in prison far exceeds their proportion in over 20 states.  On the whole, they made up 35% of jail inmates and 37% of prison inmates.  Another study concluded that at the time of his birth, a Black American has a 33% chance of going to prison during his life-time.

Black Americans appeared to be trapped and languishing in their own self-perception of a persecuted people who were freed from plantation slavery just to be quickly enslaved by the larger White society. Poverty, unemployment and incarceration reinforced inherently low self-image and perceived lack of economic progress when compared with other better-off non-White Americans eg Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, Hispanics and Latinos, many of whom were recent immigrants only in the last 30 years.
No wonder White Americans’ stereotypes of Black Americans are reinforced concerning the capability and suitability of the Black man to live and work in the civilized and modern American society of law. This sad state of mutual misunderstanding affects and retards any significant progress in their race relations, and can be attributed to the absence of visionary and courageous leadership in the President, both Houses of Congress, Community and Social Leaders, Black and White Influencers and Business Leaders. 

Leadership failure by both Black and White leaders is culpable and responsible for the American race against racism taking off on a momentum with racism in the lead far, far ahead.      

Know that American society was created with white racism. The earliest white God-fearing Christian settlers in the New World deployed racism as their weapon of choice, alongside firearms, to expropriate Native American Indians of their legacy ancestral lands as a matter of their self-assumed divine entitlement in order to create their own colonies. 

Early American colonies have a disdain for non-White immigrants who were not from countries like England, Ireland, France, Holland and Sweden.  That racism was nurtured and systematically developed by the early and subsequent colonies is baffling since they had migrated to the dangerous New World to escape religious persecution and social ostracism. 

Deprived of their birthright, the descendents of Native Americans tribes now live in respective “Reservations” which are often desolated properties on mere fractions of the greater American plains which once belonged to their fathers and ancestors.

The Chinese who first came to America in 1850s in search of gold and silver fortunes and who later helped built the Great American Railroads, like other non-White settlers, also encountered systemic White racism in the forms of legal and extralegal discrimination in daily living. Considered “the dregs of Asia”, they were prohibited from public schools, from voting, from citizenship and from testifying in courts or legal access. They were instead however legally liable to pay school, property, water, hospital taxes as well as a “permission tax” for gold and silver mining activities.        

The Chinese were only allowed US citizenship in 1943; Asian Indians from 1946 followed by Japanese and other Asians in 1952. With citizenship rights came the right to vote, or so it seemed. It is not until the 1965 Voting Rights Act which banned discrimination against voters belonging to language minority groups and provided critically important protections to these and other minority Americans. Section 203 of the Act which mandated the provision of bilingual ballots and language assistance to Asian American voters was only acted upon as recent as 13 October 2011, when bilingual ballots and language assistance were deployed in 22 cities over 11 states and in 6 Asian languages including Chinese, Filipino (Tagalog), Vietnamese and Korean.

We should regard the USA as becoming a young modern democracy only in 1965 using the universal franchise measure for a modern democracy. 

Singaporeans should be glad to know that we achieved the benefit of 1-man-1-vote universal franchise and democratic self-government in 1959, before the USA who is often hailed, factually incorrectly, as the greatest democracy of our time. 

Racism has neither a white or back face.  Racism is an evil that has neither colour nor face.  Racism is learnt.  We learn it from our parents. We teach it to our children.  The motivation to teach racism to our children arises out of our own fear.  We fear what we do not understand what or whom looks different from us.  Our natural reaction to the irritating uncomfortable fear is to retaliate, to defend, to eliminate and to remove the source of the discomfort by causing pain and possibly its death.  Racism counters such fears by concealing these fears.

The fear that Blacks can do what Whites do invokes such paranoiac fear from the thought that Blacks could actually be better than Whites in the things that they should not possibly have the genetics and aptitude for.  Racism rests upon the phony notion of inherent racial superiority.  

Racial bias may seem natural and innate in most of us. We need to take off our masks of racism. Using pride in our own cultural heritage as a cover, one is easily tempted to wear it all the time to compensate perhaps for an inadequate sense of self-esteem and self-worth.  Unconsciously, it gets the better of even the most “enlightened” among us who proclaim to be “colour blind”.  We are in fact blinded to our own racism which resonates in our unconsciousness. 

We must first face and admit the racism within ourselves. Black and White Americans must learn to discard, unlearn and scrub the baggage of their racist and bigoted history. Unhelpful history is best archived into irrelevance and possibly oblivion.  New chapters must be written inclusive of all Americans, and not just between Blacks and Whites.  

Racism feeds on a dangerous diet of contaminant ideas and lies regarding race and racial superiority, and regarding the inferiority of other races along various dimensions.  Read for example, the Malaysian Myth of the lazy Malay and the divisive bogus notion of Chinese privilege in racially harmonious Singapore.  

The race against racism is long and never-ending.  We need to conquer the lingering racism in ourselves. The imperative is to race towards and beyond the front of our own racial prejudices.  Some may believe that we cannot live without racism; for sure, we cannot live within it.  To win the race against racism, we have to first conquer ourselves (quoting Chinese philosopher Lau Tzu).

Yes, it is OK to ignore the things we disagree and focus on those we do, especially that which unite us. Social harmony does not require consensus or standardisation or assimilation. Harmonious co-existence in race relations needs only the respectful tolerance of differences without discrimination or recrimination.  A strong united community can embrace diversities of practice and opinions to allow the innovations of thought and ideas to make for a better future society. 

Only the end of racism will inject real meaning to the self-evidential natural freedom and equality envisioned and promised in the US Constitution. True freedom will bring responsibilities. These responsibilities include inclusiveness, justice, equality, sharing, opportunities, compassion, empathy, and condemning bigotry in any expressions.

After Dallas, can America run and stay increasingly way ahead in her race against racism? Only her readiness in truly acting out these responsibilities can begin the end of the long, long race against racism. Over these recent weeks, Americans know now that the mega-thon race against racism is far from slowing down … or over.

Read the Full Article:


Tuesday, 28 June 2016

The Dawn of Something Awesome

Post-Brexit UK – A New Dawn for ASEAN

The political and economic fundamentals of the United Kingdom (UK) remain very strong even as madness and mayhem descend upon global financial markets after the Brexit voted 52%-48% in favour of the UK leaving the European Union (EU) in 2 years time.

That the UK has never been truly and fully an integrated part of the EU seem to be lost on the major market players as they allow their fears and ignorance to fuel massive sell-down of stocks regardless of their materiality and relevance to UK and/or EU economies.  Global financial markets protested as they are unable to grasp the inevitability of the emergence of an unfamiliar new world order having a independent, politically and economically strong UK unhinged from the EU. 

The resulting chaos and havoc wiped out more than US$2 Trillion in stock value across various stock exchanges and markets.  And an unprecedented and mysterious 8% fall in the fundamentally strong sterling pound UK£ against the cheapening US$ whose real value is in constant decline due to the weekly printing of US$billions by the US Federal Reserve.  

Even the rating agencies – Moody, S&P and Fitch - rushes to cut the UK’s credit rating outlook to “negative” from its 2nd higher “Aa1” status, claiming without any evidential information or analytic support that her independence from the EU’s infamous and costly bureaucratic business rule-book would have “negative implications for the UK’s medium-term growth outlook”.  Moody also lowered the UK’s creditor and debt ratings to “negative” from “stable”, again without providing any objective rationale.

And yes, this is the same Moody rating agency who, together with S&P and Fitch, was blamed for providing top Triple A ratings to junk bonds and sub-prime scams leading to the 2007 financial meltdown.

The UK economy is 4% of the world’s GDP; and at nearly US$3 Trillion is the 9th largest in the world and the 2nd largest in the EU.  With a reducing national budget deficit, the UK has been the fastest growing among the developed nations, being the 9th largest exporter and the 5th largest importer with the world, including the EU. 

In terms of foreign direct investments (FDI), the UK has the 3rd largest stock (behind USA and China) of inward FDI worth US$1.7 Trillion as well as the 2nd largest stock of outward FDI, of which a significant 28% (about US$35Billion) flows into the EU.   

Hysterical pundits pronouncing the decline and end of the UK economy should do their homework and re-fresh on the fundamentals of strong economics.  Given the fact of a clumsy, burdensome and declining EU, it further defies intelligent rational analysis for financial markets to dive into pandemonic chaos immediately post-Brexit voting.

In recent years, the UK has become the 2nd largest net contributor, after Germany, to the EU budget.  UK’s annual EU membership fee is around UK£12.9 Billion, or usually estimated at about UK£350 Million PER WEEK before her rebate, or net about UK£250 Million PER WEEK with the rebateThis is immediate savings once the UK is formally out of the EU, and can be diverted to domestic use or FDI into other countries eg ASEAN, Commonwealth, Africa and USA.

The grandiose EU dream has become nightmarish over the years. The peace and prosperity envisioned at its creation are mired in despair, unemployment, debts and fiscal disarray.   EU’s share of the world GDP has fallen in the past 40 years from 37% in 1973 to less than 23% today, and still declining.  EU unemployment remains high when compared with UK’s 7.5%, with countries like Spain at 23% and Greece above 25%.  The relentless economic EU economic and political crisis has no solution because it is grounded in the very conceptual nature of a “United European” notion that forces a grouping of 28 nations with very disparate economies and fiscal discipline, resulting thereby in endemic economic paralysis and stunted development.

Without the UK, the EU must cut its budget correspondingly by 10%.  This is believed to be impossibly tough in view of tough widespread wasteful spending and corruption.  As pointed out in Brexit Part 1: Whither the Gloom and Doom for UK?, the EU exit terms and conditions are expected to be fair and favourable to the UK since her loss to the larger EU community is much greater than her substantial economic and political contributions to the EU bloc.

Post-Brexit UK is finally freed of EU ideological, economic and political shackles to pursue her own destiny and dreams. Brexit opens up tremendous opportunities for the UK to expand its own trade with current trading partners like ASEAN, Commonwealth, Africa and the USA.  And to create alliances with other trading blocs eg the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) around the Pacific Rim, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the emergent ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) without having to obtain EU approval.

ASEAN is an economic community of 10 South-East Asian nations with a combined GDP of US$2.4 Trillion and 630 million people.  For ASEAN, the UK is a main export and FDI destination in Europe.  ASEAN also receive significant FDI from the UK. The UK-ASEAN relationship can be expected to deepen and expand in volume and financially post-Brexit. 

As a start, a UK-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (UKAFTA) would make logical sense and easiest to model after the proposed EU-ASEAN FTA currently under negotiation.  Alternatively, individual ASEAN nations could fashion their own respective FTA with the UK, using the 2015 EU-Singapore FTA (EUSFTA) as a template model.  Individual UK-ASEAN Member FTAs would not jeopardize the eventual conclusion of a EU-ASEAN FTA.  There are multi-billion dollar infrastructural projects in ASEAN awaiting FDI and investments from the UK, EU and the rest of the world.

Post-Brexit UK is a strong competitor of the EU and other developed nations in the global FDI and trade space.  ASEAN sits at the heart of two high-profile mega-FTAs: the TPP and the RCEP between ASEAN and its six FTA partners, including China, Japan and India. These two giant trade initiatives will inevitably draw ever more economic activities and FDI to the region and away from the transatlantic trading area, to the detriment of the EU.

The continuing turmoil in the financial markets post-Brexit ignore the solid inherent strengths of the UK economiy and her financial institutions.  Her political stability is not weakened by the Brexit vote, but is instead strengthened by the boldness and courage of her political leaders from all political persuasions to trust in the judgment of the UK people.  The doomsayers and gloomy outlooks for post-Brexit UK have no objective basis and are grounded in their fears of the unknown dynamics of a EU without the UK. 

The UK is also the peer leader of the Commonwealth, a huge loosely-organised bloc of 53 countries with a combined GDP of over US$9 Trillion, of which 78% of which is accounted for by the four largest economies: UK (US$2.95 Trillion), India (US$2.05 Trillion), Canada (US$1.79 Trillion), and Australia (US$1.44 Trillion). 

 And when the economic radarscope of the UK scans more wider globally, the Commonwealth and ASEAN will become her new prosperity platforms as the UK re-kindles old relations in the dawn of a new global order now unfolding and unpacking before us in an uncharacteristic but certain manner.